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UFGI Publications Round-Up Week 9/5/2016

Race-Specific Pharmacodynamic Model of Propofol-Induced Loss of Consciousness.

Author information: Lampotang S1,2,3,4, Lizdas DE1,2,3, Derendorf H5, Gravenstein N1,2, Lok B6, Quarles JP7.

1Center for Safety, Simulation, and Advanced Learning Technologies, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
3Clinical & Translational Science Institute Simulation Core, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
4UF Health Shands Experiential Learning Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
5Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
6Computer & Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
7Department of Computer Science, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Journal: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

Date of e-pub: March 28, 2016

Abstract: We present a race-specific model of propofol-induced loss of consciousness that is based on pharmacodynamic data collected and adapted from the peer-reviewed literature. In the proposed race-specific model that includes EC05 and EC95 concentrations, the median (EC50) (and where available 95%CI) propofol concentrations at the effect site compartment for propofol-induced loss of consciousness for whites, Chinese, blacks, and Indians are 2.8 (2.7-2.9), 2.2 (2.2-2.3), 2.0, and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively.

 

 

Promoting peripheral myelin repair.

Author information: Zhou Y1, Notterpek L2.

1Departments of Neuroscience and Neurology, College of Medicine, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States.
2Departments of Neuroscience and Neurology, College of Medicine, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States. Electronic address: notterpek@ufl.edu.

Journal: Experimental Neurology

Date of e-pub: April 11, 2016

Abstract: Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the target of myelin repair strategies in acute injuries and chronic diseases, such as hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In one approach, the endogenous regenerative capacity of Schwann cells is enhanced through interventions such as exercise, electrical stimulation or pharmacological means. Alternatively, Schwann cells derived from healthy nerves, or engineered from different tissue sources have been transplanted into the PNS to support remyelination. These transplant approaches can then be further enhanced by exercise and/or electrical stimulation, as well as by the inclusion of biomaterial engineered to support glial cell viability and neurite extension. Advances in our basic understanding of peripheral nerve biology, as well as biomaterial engineering, will further improve the functional repair of myelinated peripheral nerves.

 

 

Incidence and predictors of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who achieved sustained virological response.

Author information: Leone S1,2, Prosperi M3, Costarelli S4, Nasta P5, Maggiolo F6, Di Giambenedetto S7, Saracino A8, Di Pietro M9, Gori A4.

1Infectious Diseases Division, “San Gerardo” Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy. sebastianoleone@yahoo.it.
2Infectious Diseases Division, “San Giuseppe Moscati” Hospital, Avellino, Italy. sebastianoleone@yahoo.it.
3Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
4Infectious Diseases Division, “San Gerardo” Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
5University Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and Brescia Spedali Civili General Hospital, Brescia, Italy.
6Infectious Diseases Division, Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.
7Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Policlinico Gemelli, USSC, Rome, Italy.
8Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Policlinico Hospital, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
9Infectious Diseases Division, “Santa Maria Annunziata” Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Journal: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

Date of e-pub: June 6, 2016

Abstract: Data on the effects of sustained virologic response (SVR) to hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy on the outcome of extrahepatic complications are scarce. We conducted this study to assess the impact of SVR on the occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We analyzed coinfected HIV/HCV patients in the Management of Standardized Evaluation of Retroviral HIV Infection (MASTER) cohort. Only event-free patients with a serum HCV-RNA determination at baseline were included. Patients were divided into four groups: INF-exposed with SVR; INF-exposed without SVR; spontaneous HCV clearance; untreated viremic patients. We estimated the incidence of extrahepatic complications and employed Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression to assess the association of SVR/INF strata adjusted for a series of confounders. Data from 1676 patients were analyzed (20.29 % started an INF-based regimen). Overall, the incidence of CKD, DM, CVD, and death was 5.32 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.99-6.98], 10.13 (95 % CI 8.20-12.37), 6.79 (95 % CI 5.26-8.65), and 13.49 (95 % CI 11.29-16.0) per 1000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. In the Cox model for treated patients, SVR was not associated with a lower risk of CKD, DM, CVD, and death compared to non-SVR. Cirrhosis was significantly associated with a higher risk of CKD [hazard ratio (HR) 2.13; 95 % CI 1.06-4.31], DM (HR 3.48; 95 % CI 2.18-5.57), and death (HR 6.18; 95 % CI 4.1-9.31), but not of CVD (HR 1.14; 95 % CI 0.57-2.3). There are still many unknowns regarding the impact of SVR on the occurrence of extrahepatic complications in coinfected HIV/HCV patients. Further investigations are needed in order to elucidate the role of SVR as an independent prognostic factor for extrahepatic events.

 

 

TALEN mediated targeted mutagenesis of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in highly polyploid sugarcane improves cell wall composition for production of bioethanol.

Author information: Jung JH1,2, Altpeter F3,4,5.

1Agronomy Department, University of Florida, IFAS, PO Box 110300, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.
2Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.
3Agronomy Department, University of Florida, IFAS, PO Box 110300, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA. altpeter@ufl.edu.
4Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, IFAS, PO Box 110300, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA. altpeter@ufl.edu.
5Agronomy Department, University of Florida-IFAS, PO Box 103610, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA. altpeter@ufl.edu.

Journal: Plant Molecular biology

Date of e-pub: June 15, 2016

Abstract: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a prime crop for commercial biofuel production. Advanced conversion technology utilizes both, sucrose accumulating in sugarcane stems as well as cell wall bound sugars for commercial ethanol production. Reduction of lignin content significantly improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Conventional mutagenesis is not expected to confer reduction in lignin content in sugarcane due to its high polyploidy (x = 10-13) and functional redundancy among homo(eo)logs. Here we deploy transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to induce mutations in a highly conserved region of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) of sugarcane. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was validated by pyrosequencing as reliable and inexpensive high throughput method for identification and quantitative characterization of TALEN mediated mutations. Targeted COMT mutations were identified by CE in up to 74 % of the lines. In different events 8-99 % of the wild type COMT were converted to mutant COMT as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mutation frequencies among mutant lines were positively correlated to lignin reduction. Events with a mutation frequency of 99 % displayed a 29-32 % reduction of the lignin content compared to non-transgenic controls along with significantly reduced S subunit content and elevated hemicellulose content. CE analysis displayed similar peak patterns between primary COMT mutants and their vegetative progenies suggesting that TALEN mediated mutations were faithfully transmitted to vegetative progenies. This is the first report on genome editing in sugarcane. The findings demonstrate that targeted mutagenesis can improve cell wall characteristics for production of lignocellulosic ethanol in crops with highly complex genomes.

 

 

Reversion of β-Cell Autoimmunity Changes Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: TEDDY Study.

Author information: Vehik K1, Lynch KF2, Schatz DA3, Akolkar B4, Hagopian W5, Rewers M6, She JX7, Simell O8, Toppari J8, Ziegler AG9, Lernmark Å10, Bonifacio E11, Krischer JP2; TEDDY Study Group.

1Health Informatics Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FLkendra.vehik@epi.usf.edu.
2Health Informatics Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.
3Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
4National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD.
5Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute, Seattle, WA.
6Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO.
7Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA.
8Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
9Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes e.V. Neuherberg, Neuherberg, Germany.
10Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University/CRC, Skåne University, Malmö, Sweden.
11Center for Regenerative Therapies, University of Technology, Dresden, Germany Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Dresden, Germany.

Journal: Diabetes Care

Date of e-pub: June 16, 2016

Abstract: β-Cell autoantibodies are a feature of the preclinical phase of type 1 diabetes. Here, we asked how frequently they revert in a cohort of children at risk for type 1 diabetes and whether reversion has any effect on type 1 diabetes risk.

Children were up to 10 years of age and screened more than once for insulin autoantibody, GAD antibody, and insulinoma antigen-2 antibodies. Persistent autoantibody was defined as an autoantibody present on two or more consecutive visits and confirmed in two reference laboratories. Reversion was defined as two or more consecutive negative visits after persistence. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to examine how reversion modified the risk of development of multiple autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes.

Reversion was relatively frequent for autoantibodies to GAD65 (19%) and insulin (29%), but was largely restricted to children who had single autoantibodies (24%) and rare in children who had developed multiple autoantibodies (<1%). Most (85%) reversion of single autoantibodies occurred within 2 years of seroconversion. Reversion was associated with HLA genotype, age, and decreasing titer. Children who reverted from single autoantibodies to autoantibody negative had, from birth, a risk for type 1 diabetes of 0.14 per 100 person-years; children who never developed autoantibodies, 0.06 per 100 person-years; and, children who remained single-autoantibody positive, 1.8 per 100 person-years.

Type 1 diabetes risk remained high in children who had developed multiple β-cell autoantibodies even when individual autoantibodies reverted. We suggest that monitoring children with single autoantibodies for at least 1 year after seroconversion is beneficial for stratification of type 1 diabetes risk.

 

 

 

Characterization of MAT gene functions in the life cycle of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum reveals a lineage-specific MAT gene functioning in apothecium morphogenesis.

Author information: Doughan B1, Rollins JA2.

1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0680, USA.
2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0680, USA. Electronic address: rollinsj@ufl.edu.

Journal: Fungal Biology

Date of e-pub: June 22 2016

Abstract: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a phytopathogenic fungus that relies on the completion of the sexual cycle to initiate aerial infections. The sexual cycle produces apothecia required for inoculum dispersal. In this study, insight into the regulation of apothecial multicellular development was pursued through functional characterization of mating-type genes. These genes are hypothesized to encode master regulatory proteins required for aspects of sexual development ranging from fertilization through fertile fruiting body development. Experimentally, loss-of-function mutants were created for the conserved core mating-type genes (MAT1-1-1, and MAT1-2-1), and the lineage-specific genes found only in S. sclerotiorum and closely related fungi (MAT1-1-5, and MAT1-2-4). The MAT1-1-1, MAT1-1-5, and MAT1-2-1 mutants are able to form ascogonia but are blocked in all aspects of apothecium development. These mutants also exhibit defects in secondary sexual characters including lower numbers of spermatia. The MAT1-2-4 mutants are delayed in carpogenic germination accompanied with altered disc morphogenesis and ascospore production. They too produce lower numbers of spermatia. All four MAT gene mutants showed alterations in the expression of putative pheromone precursor (Ppg-1) and pheromone receptor (PreA, PreB) genes. Our findings support the involvement of MAT genes in sexual fertility, gene regulation, meiosis, and morphogenesis in S. sclerotiorum.

 

 

 

Essential role of conserved DUF177A protein in plastid 23S rRNA accumulation and plant embryogenesis.

Author information: Yang J1, Suzuki M2, McCarty DR3.

1Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
2Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
3Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA drm@ufl.edu.

Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

Date of e-pub: August 2016

Abstract: DUF177 proteins are nearly universally conserved in bacteria and plants except the Chlorophyceae algae. Thus far, duf177 mutants in bacteria have not established a function. In contrast, duf177a mutants have embryo lethal phenotypes in maize and Arabidopsis. In maize inbred W22, duf177a mutant embryos arrest at an early transition stage, whereas the block is suppressed in the B73 inbred background, conditioning an albino seedling phenotype. Background-dependent embryo lethal phenotypes are characteristic of maize plastid gene expression mutants. Consistent with the plastid gene expression hypothesis, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a significant reduction of 23S rRNA in an Escherichia coli duf177 knockout. Plastid 23S rRNA contents of duf177a mutant tissues were also markedly reduced compared with the wild-type, whereas plastid 16S, 5S, and 4.5S rRNA contents were less affected, indicating that DUF177 is specifically required for accumulation of prokaryote-type 23S rRNA. An AtDUF177A-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene controlled by the native AtDUF177A promoter fully complemented the Arabidopsis atduf177a mutant. Transient expression of AtDUF177A-GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that the protein was localized in chloroplasts. The essential role of DUF177A in chloroplast-ribosome formation is reminiscent of IOJAP, another highly conserved ribosome-associated protein, suggesting that key mechanisms controlling ribosome formation in plastids evolved from non-essential pathways for regulation of the prokaryotic ribosome.

 

 

Molecular impacts of perfluorinated chemicals (PFASs) in the liver and testis of male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in Minnesota Lakes.

Author information: Collí-Dulá RC1, Martyniuk CJ1, Streets S2, Denslow ND1, Lehr R3.

1Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, and the Genetics Institute, University of Florida,Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
2Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Environmental Analysis and Outcomes Division, 520 Lafayette Road North, Saint Paul, MN 55155, USA.
3Mary Griggs Burke Center for Freshwater Innovation, Northland College, Ashland, WI 54806, USA. Electronic address: rlehr@northland.edu.

Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Part D Genomics and Proteomics

Date of e-pub: September 2016

Abstract: Perfluorinated chemicals (PFASs) stem from a wide range of sources and have been detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide, including the upper Midwest and the state of Minnesota in the USA. This study investigated whether fish with high body burden levels of PFASs in the Twin Cities Metro Areas showed any evidence of adverse effects at the level of the transcriptome. We hypothesized that fish with higher body burden levels of PFASs would exhibit molecular responses in the liver and testis that were suggestive of oxidative and general stress, as well as impaired reproduction. Concentrations of PFASs in largemouth bass varied significantly across the sampled lakes, with the lowest concentrations of PFASs found in fish from Steiger and Upper Prior Lakes and the highest concentrations found in fish from Calhoun and Twin Lakes. Largemouth bass with high PFAS concentrations exhibited changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, energy production, RNA processing, protein production/degradation and contaminant detoxification, all of which are consistent with biomarker responses observed in other studies with PFASs. However, given the wide range of genes that were differentially expressed across the lakes and the variability observed in the mechanisms through which biological processes were affected, it is unlikely that PFASs are the only stressors affecting largemouth bass in the Twin Cities Metro Areas lakes. Indeed, Twin Lake is affected by the Joslyn superfund site which contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins. These compounds are also expected to drive the transcriptomics responses observed, but to what degree is difficult to ascertain at this time.

 

 

Growth Charts for Prader-Willi Syndrome During Growth Hormone Treatment.

Author information: Butler MG1, Lee J2, Cox DM3, Manzardo AM3, Gold JA4, Miller JL5, Roof E6, Dykens E6, Kimonis V7, Driscoll DJ5

1University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA mbutler4@kumc.edu.
2Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.
3University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.
4Loma Linda University Medical School, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
5University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
6Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.
7University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Journal: Clinical Pediatrics

Date of e-pub: September 2016

Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to develop syndrome-specific standardized growth curves for growth hormone-treated Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) individuals aged 0 to 18 years. Anthropometric growth-related measures were obtained on 171 subjects with PWS who were treated with growth hormone for at least 40% of their lifespan. They had no history of scoliosis. PWS standardized growth curves were developed for 7 percentile ranges using the LMS method for weight, height, head circumference, weight/length, and BMI along with normative 3rd, 50th, and 97th percentiles plotted using control data from the literature and growth databases. Percentiles were plotted on growth charts for comparison purposes. Growth hormone treatment appears to normalize stature and markedly improves weight in PWS compared with standardized curves for non-growth hormone-treated PWS individuals. Growth chart implications and recommended usage are discussed.

 

 

Spotlight on environmental omics and toxicology: a long way in a short time.

Author information: Martyniuk CJ1, Simmons DB2.

1Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address: cmartyn@ufl.edu.
2Water Science and Technology, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada.

Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Part D Genomics and Proteomics

Date of e-pub: September 2016

Abstract: The applications for high throughput omics technologies in environmental science have increased dramatically in recent years. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have been used to study how chemicals in our environment affect both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and the characterization of molecular initiating events is a significant goal in toxicology to better predict adverse responses to toxicants. This special journal edition demonstrates the scope of the science that leverages omics-based methods in both laboratory and wild populations within the context of environmental toxicology, ranging from fish to mammals. It is important to recognize that the environment comprises one axis of the One Health concept – the idea that human health is unequivocally intertwined to our environment and to the organisms that inhabit that environment. We have much to learn from a comparative approach, and studies that integrate the transcriptome, proteome, and the metabolome are expected to offer the most detailed mechanism-based adverse outcome pathways that are applicable for use in both environmental monitoring and risk assessment.

 

 

High contaminant loads in Lake Apopka’s riparian wetland disrupt gene networks involved in reproduction and immune function in largemouth bass.

Author information: Martyniuk CJ1, Doperalski NJ2, Prucha MS2, Zhang JL2, Kroll KJ2, Conrow R3, Barber DS2, Denslow ND4.

1Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address: cmartyn@ufl.edu.
2Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
3St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL 32177, USA.
4Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address: ndenslow@ufl.edu.

Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Part D Genomics and Proteomics

Date of e-pub: September 2016

Abstract: Lake Apopka (FL, USA) has elevated levels of some organochlorine pesticides in its sediments and a portion of its watershed has been designated a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. This study assessed reproductive endpoints in Florida largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) after placement into experimental ponds adjacent to Lake Apopka. LMB collected from a clean reference site (DeLeon Springs) were stocked at two periods of time into ponds constructed in former farm fields on the north shore of the lake. LMB were stocked during early and late oogenesis to determine if there were different effects of contamination on LMB that may be attributed to their reproductive stage. LMB inhabiting the ponds for ~4months had anywhere from 2 to 800 times higher contaminant load for a number of organochlorine pesticides (e.g. p, p’-DDE, methoxychlor) compared to control animals. Gonadosomatic index and plasma vitellogenin were not different between reproductively-stage matched LMB collected at reference sites compared to those inhabiting the ponds. However, plasma 17β-estradiol was lower in LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds compared to ovary stage-matched LMB from the St. Johns River, a site used as a reference site. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to reproduction (granulosa function, oocyte development), endocrine function (steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis), and immune function (T cell suppression, leukocyte accumulation) were differentially expressed in the ovaries of LMB placed into the ponds. These data suggest that (1) LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds showed disrupted reproduction and immune responses and that (2) gene expression profiles provided site-specific information by discriminating LMB from different macro-habitats.

 

 

The influence of breeding strategy, reproductive stage, and tissue type on transcript variability in fish.

Author information: Dreier DA1, Loughery JR2, Denslow ND1, Martyniuk CJ3.

1Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
2Department of Biology and Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L 4L5, Canada.
3Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Department of Biology and Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L 4L5, Canada. Electronic address: cmartyn@ufl.edu.

Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Part D Genomics and Proteomics

Date of e-pub: September 2016

Abstract: Characterizing factors that contribute to transcript variability is necessary before molecular endpoints are widely adopted as biomarkers for environmental monitoring programs and risk assessment. Here, we employed a meta-analysis approach to understand how reproductive stage, breeding strategy, and tissue type influence transcript variability in multiple fish species. Transcript abundance from the scientific literature was examined by method of quantification (qPCR or microarray), and the extracted data were used to calculate the coefficient of variation (CoV) for each transcript. Based on qPCR data, variability in the abundance of estrogen receptor 1 and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3b was dependent upon reproductive stage and/or breeding strategy in the female ovaries. The variability of other transcripts in the steroid biosynthesis pathway as well as other steroid receptors did not depend upon sex, breeding strategy, or reproductive stage. Variability estimates were used to determine sample size requirements for detecting specific critical effects in molecular endpoints. It was estimated that only 37.8% of published studies used in the qPCR meta-analysis had sufficient experimental power (0.8) to detect a 2-fold expression difference in a transcript. To build upon these analyses, microarray data were used to measure overall variability of the transcriptome, and it was determined that the vitellogenic reproductive stage had the lowest transcriptomic variability compared to other reproductive stages. This variability was lower in a single-spawning species (largemouth bass) compared to a multiple-spawner (fathead minnow). Following this, a meta-analysis of 777 microarrays for multiple fish species was performed to determine the influence of breeding strategy and tissue type on transcriptomic variability. In this analysis, single-spawning fish showed lower gonadal and hepatic transcriptome variability compared to multiple-spawning species. Thus, these species may be more appropriate for sampling molecular endpoints in monitoring programs. Transcript variability was lowest in the brain, followed by the gonads and liver, which may reflect fewer morphological changes relative to these tissues. The results of this study should be used in conjunction with other experimental and sampling recommendations to optimize the use of molecular endpoints in regulatory ecotoxicology and environmental monitoring programs.

 

 

 

Isolation of an Enterovirus D68 from Blood from a Child with Pneumonia in Rural Haiti: Close Phylogenetic Linkage with New York Strain.

Author information: ElBadry M1, Lednicky J, Cella E, Telisma T, Chavannes S, Loeb J, Ciccozzi M, Okech B, Beau De Rochars VM, Salemi M, Morris JG Jr.

1From the *Emerging Pathogens Institute, †Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, ‡Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine, ‖Department of Health Services Research, Management, and Policy, College of Public Health and Health Professions, and **Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville,FL; §Department of Infectious Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases, Reference Centre on Phylogeny, Molecular Epidemiology and Microbial Evolution (FEMEM)/Epidemiology Unit, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy; and ¶Christianville Foundation School Clinic, Gressier, Haiti.

Journal: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

Date of e-pub: September 2016

Abstract: We report the detection and isolation of enterovirus D68 from the blood of a 6-year-old child in rural Haiti, who presented with high fever and clinical signs suggestive of pneumonia. On phylogenetic analysis, this Haitian isolate was virtually identical to an enterovirus D68 strain circulating in New York during the same time period.

 

 

Hepatic gene expression profiling in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the fungicide chlorothalonil.

Author information: Sánchez Garayzar AB1, Bahamonde PA2, Martyniuk CJ3, Betancourt M4, Munkittrick KR5.

1Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5, Canada; CIAD, AC Mazatlan Unit for Aquaculture and Environmental Management, Mazatlán 82000, Sinaloa, Mexico. Electronic address: anny.sanchez@estudiantes.ciad.mx.
2Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5, Canada.
3Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5, Canada; Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville,FL 32611, USA.
4CIAD, AC Mazatlan Unit for Aquaculture and Environmental Management, Mazatlán 82000, Sinaloa, Mexico.
5Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5, Canada; COSIA, Suite 1700, 520 5th Ave SW, Calgary, AB T2P 3R7, Canada.

Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Part D Genomics and Proteomics

Date of e-pub: September 2016

Abstract: Chlorothalonil (tetrachloroisophtalonitrile) is a fungicide that is widely used on agricultural crops around the world and as such, it is a ubiquitous aquatic contaminant. Despite high usage, the effects of this fungicide on non-target aquatic organisms have not been fully investigated. The aim of the present study was to (1) determine the effects of chlorothalonil toxicity on adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and (2) characterize the effects of chlorothalonil on gene expression patterns in the liver using two different concentrations of the fungicide, 0.007mg/L (environmentally-relevant) and 0.035mg/L (sublethal). These concentrations were selected from range-finding experiments that showed that zebrafish survival was significantly different from control animals at concentrations higher than 0.035mg/L but not below. Male zebrafish in both treatments of chlorothalonil showed a decrease in liversomatic index. A commercial D. rerio microarray (4×44K) was used to determine gene expression profiles in male zebrafish liver following a 96h toxicological assay. Microarray analysis revealed that males exposed to both 0.007mg/L or 0.035mg/L of chlorothalonil showed increased transcriptional sub-networks related to cell division and DNA damage and decreased expression of gene networks associated with reproduction, immunity, and xenobiotic clearance. This study improves knowledge regarding whole animal exposures to chlorothalonil and identifies molecular signaling cascades that are sensitive to this fungicide in the fish liver.

NOTE: These abstracts were retrieved from the U.S. National Library of Medicine website managed in collaboration with the U.S. National Library of Medicine 

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