Author information: Geng S1,2, Misra BB2, de Armas E3, Huhman DV4, Alborn HT5, Sumner LW4, Chen S1,2,6.
1Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
2Department of Biology, Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
3Thermo Fisher Scientific, 1400 Northpoint Parkway, West Palm Beach, FL 33407, USA.
4Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA.
5Chemistry Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, United States, Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL, 32608, USA.
6Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry, Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
Journal: Plant Journal
Date of e-pub: Aug. 8, 2016
Abstract: Foliar stomatal movements are critical for regulating plant water loss and gas exchange. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels are known to induce stomatal closure. However, the current knowledge on CO2 signal transduction in stomatal guard cells is limited. Here we report metabolomic responses of Brassica napus guard cells to elevated CO2 using three hyphenated metabolomics platforms: gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography (LC)-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-MS, and ultra high-performance LC (UHPLC)-quadrupole time-of-flight (QToF)-MS. A total of 358 metabolites from guard cells were quantified in a time-course response to elevated CO2 level. Most metabolites increased under elevated CO2 , showing the most significant differences at 10 minutes. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increased and stomatal aperture decreased with time. Major alterations in flavonoid, organic acid, sugar, fatty acid, phenylpropanoid, and amino acid metabolic pathways indicated changes in both primary and specialized metabolic pathways in guard cells. Most interestingly, the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis pathway was significantly altered in the course of elevated CO2 treatment. Together with results obtained from JA biosynthesis and signaling mutants as well as CO2 signaling mutants, we discovered that CO2 induced stomatal closure is mediated by JA signaling.
Author information: Aires R1, Jurberg AD1, Leal F2, Nóvoa A1, Cohn MJ3, Mallo M4.
1Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Rua da Quinta Grande 6, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal.
2Department of Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 103610, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
3Department of Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 103610, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Genetics Institute, University of Florida, P.O. Box 103610, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
4Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Rua da Quinta Grande 6, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Journal: Developmental Cell
Date of e-pub: Aug. 8, 2016
Abstract: Vertebrates exhibit a remarkably broad variation in trunk and tail lengths. However, the evolutionary and developmental origins of this diversity remain largely unknown. Posterior Hox genes were proposed to be major players in trunk length diversification in vertebrates, but functional studies have so far failed to support this view. Here we identify the pluripotency factor Oct4 as a key regulator of trunk length in vertebrate embryos. Maintaining high Oct4 levels in axial progenitors throughout development was sufficient to extend trunk length in mouse embryos. Oct4 also shifted posterior Hox gene-expression boundaries in the extended trunks, thus providing a link between activation of these genes and the transition to tail development. Furthermore, we show that the exceptionally long trunks of snakes are likely to result from heterochronic changes in Oct4 activity during body axis extension, which may have derived from differential genomic rearrangements at the Oct4 locus during vertebrate evolution.
Author information: Ordóñez AE1,2, Ranney R3, Schwartz M3, Mathews CA3,4, Satre DD3,5.
1Department of Psychiatry and UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
2Office of Clinical Research, National Institute of Mental Health, 6001 Executive Blvd. MSC 9669, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. email@example.com.
3Department of Psychiatry and UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.
4Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, 100 S Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
5Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region, 2000 Broadway, 3rd Floor, Oakland, CA, 94612, USA.
Journal: Addiction Science and Clinical Practice
Date of e-pub: Aug. 9, 2016
Abstract: Alcohol use can have a significant negative impact on young adults in mental health treatment. This cross-sectional study examined prevalence and factors associated with hazardous drinking among young adults seeking outpatient mental health services, rate of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and the relationship between hazardous drinking and other types of substance use.
Participants were 487 young adults ages 18-25 who completed self-administered computerized screening questions for alcohol and drug use. Alcohol use patterns were assessed and predictors of hazardous drinking (≥5 drinks on one or more occasions in the past year) were identified using logistic regression.
Of the 487 participants, 79.8 % endorsed prior-year alcohol use, 52.3 % reported one or more episodes of hazardous drinking in the prior year and 8.2 % were diagnosed with an AUD. Rates of recent and lifetime alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use were significantly greater in those with prior-year hazardous drinking. In logistic regression, prior-year hazardous drinking was associated with lifetime marijuana use (OR 3.30, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 2.05, 5.28), lifetime tobacco use (OR 1.88, p = 0.004; 95 % CI 1.22, 2.90) and older age (OR 1.18 per year, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.29).
In an outpatient mental health setting, high rates of hazardous drinking were identified, and drinking was associated with history of other substance use. Results highlight patient characteristics associated with hazardous drinking that mental health providers should be aware of in treating young adults, especially older age and greater use of tobacco and marijuana.
Population differences in S-warfarin pharmacokinetics among African Americans, Asians and whites: their influence on pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms.
Author information: Kubo K1, Ohara M1, Tachikawa M1, Cavallari LH2, Lee MT3,4, Wen MS5, Scordo MG6, Nutescu EA7, Perera MA8, Miyajima A1, Kaneko N1, Pengo V9, Padrini R10, Chen YT4, Takahashi H1.
1Department of Biopharmaceutics, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan.
2Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
3Genomic Medicine Institute, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA.
4Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
5Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
6Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
7Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
8Department of Medicine, Section of Genetic Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
9Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
10Department of Medicine DIMED, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Date of e-pub: Aug. 9, 2016
Abstract: Using population pharmacokinetic analysis (PPK), we attempted to identify predictors of S-warfarin clearance (CL(S)) and to clarify population differences in S-warfarin pharmacokinetics among a cohort of 378 African American, Asian and white patients. Significant predictors of CL(S) included clinical (age, body weight and sex) and genotypic (CYP2C9*2,*3 and *8) factors, as well as African American ethnicity, the median CL(S) being 30% lower in the latter than in Asians and whites (170 versus 243 and 250 ml h-1, P<0.01). The plasma S-warfarin (Cp(S)) time courses following the genotype-based dosing algorithms simulated using the PPK estimates showed African Americans with CYP2C9*1/*1 and any of the VKORC1 genotypes would have an average Cp(S) at steady state 1.5-1.8 times higher than in Asians and whites. These results indicate warfarin dosing algorithms should be evaluated in each respective ethnic population. Further study of a large African American cohort will be necessary to confirm the present findings.
NOTE: These abstracts were retrieved from the U.S. National Library of Medicine website managed in collaboration with the U.S. National Library of Medicine