Emergence of recombinant Mayaro virus strains from the Amazon basin.
Mayaro virus (MAYV), causative agent of Mayaro Fever, is an arbovirus transmitted by Haemagogus mosquitoes. Despite recent attention due to the identification of several cases in South and Central America and the Caribbean, limited information on MAYV evolution and epidemiology exists and represents a barrier to prevention of further spread. We present a thorough spatiotemporal evolutionary study of MAYV full-genome sequences collected over the last sixty years within South America and Haiti, revealing recent recombination events and adaptation to a broad host and vector range, including Aedes mosquito species. We employed a Bayesian phylogeography approach to characterize the emergence of recombinants in Brazil and Haiti and report evidence in favor of the putative role of human mobility in facilitating recombination among MAYV strains from geographically distinct regions. Spatiotemporal characteristics of recombination events and the emergence of this previously neglected virus in Haiti, a known hub for pathogen spread to the Americas, warrants close monitoring of MAYV infection in the immediate future.
Lipidomic and proteomic analysis of exosomes from mouse cortical collecting duct cells.
Exosomes are endosome-derived nanovesicles that are involved in cellular communication and signaling. Exosomes are produced by epithelial cells and are found in biologic fluids including blood and urine. The packaged material within exosomes includes proteins and lipids, but the molecular comparison within exosome subtypes is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between exosomes derived from the apical plasma membrane and basolateral plasma membrane of polarized murine cortical collecting duct principal cells. Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that the size and concentration of apical and basolateral exosomes remained relatively stable across 3 different temperatures (23, 37, and 42°C). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed marked differences between the proteins packaged within the 2 types of exosomes from the same cells. Several proteins expressed at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane including α-actinin-1, moesin, 14-3-3 protein ζ/δ, annexin A1/A3/A4/A5/A6, clathrin heavy chain 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-enolase, filamin-A, and heat shock protein 90 were identified in samples of apical plasma membrane-derived exosomes, but not in basolateral plasma membrane exosomes from mouse cortical collecting duct cells. In addition to differences at the protein level, mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics analysis showed significant differences in the lipid classes and fatty acid composition of the 2 types of exosomes. We found higher levels of sphingomyelin and lower levels of cardiolipin, among other phospholipids in the apical plasma membrane compared to the basolateral plasma membrane exosomes. The molecular analyses of exosome subtypes presented herein will contribute to our understanding of exosome biogenesis, and the results may have potential implications for biomarker discovery.-Dang, V. D., Jella, K. K., Ragheb, R. R. T., Denslow, N. D., Alli, A. A. Lipidomic and proteomic analysis of exosomes from mouse cortical collecting duct cells.
BMC Genomics. 2017 Aug 18;18(1):636. doi: 10.1186/s12864-017-3949-2.
Impact of blood collection and processing on peripheral blood gene expression profiling in type 1 diabetes.
The natural history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is challenging to investigate, especially as pre-diabetic individuals are difficult to identify. Numerous T1D consortia have been established to collect whole blood for gene expression analysis from individuals with or at risk to develop T1D. However, with no universally accepted protocol for their collection, differences in sample processing may lead to variances in the results. Here, we examined whether the choice of blood collection tube and RNA extraction kit leads to differences in the expression of genes that are changed during the progression of T1D, and if these differences could be minimized by measuring gene expression directly from the lysate of whole blood.
Microarray analysis showed that the expression of 901 genes is highly influenced by sample processing using the PAXgene versus the Tempus system. These included a significant number of lymphocyte-specific genes and genes whose expression has been reported to differ in the peripheral blood of at-risk and T1D patients compared to controls. We showed that artificial changes in gene expression occur when control and T1D samples were processed differently. The sample processing-dependent differences in gene expression were largely due to loss of transcripts during the RNA extraction step using the PAXgene system. The majority of differences were not observed when gene expression was measured in whole blood lysates prepared from blood collected in PAXgene and Tempus tubes.
We showed that the gene expression profile of samples processed using the Tempus system is more accurate than that of samples processed using the PAXgene system. Variation in sample processing can result in misleading changes in gene expression. However, these differences can be minimized by measuring gene expression directly in whole blood lysates.
Shared peptide binding of HLA Class I and II alleles associate with cutaneous nevirapine hypersensitivity and identify novel risk alleles.
Genes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system encode cell-surface proteins involved in regulation of immune responses, and the way drugs interact with the HLA peptide binding groove is important in the immunopathogenesis of T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Nevirapine (NVP), is an HIV-1 antiretroviral with treatment-limiting hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) associated with multiple class I and II HLA alleles. Here we utilize a novel analytical approach to explore these multi-allelic associations by systematically examining HLA molecules for similarities in peptide binding specificities and binding pocket structure. We demonstrate that primary predisposition to cutaneous NVP HSR, seen across ancestral groups, can be attributed to a cluster of HLA-C alleles sharing a common binding groove F pocket with HLA-C*04:01. An independent association with a group of class II alleles which share the HLA-DRB1-P4 pocket is also observed. In contrast, NVP HSR protection is afforded by a cluster of HLA-B alleles defined by a characteristic peptide binding groove B pocket. The results suggest drug-specific interactions within the antigen binding cleft can be shared across HLA molecules with similar binding pockets. We thereby provide an explanation for multiple HLA associations with cutaneous NVP HSR and advance insight into its pathogenic mechanisms.
Cutaneous iridophoroma in a Green iguana (Iguana iguana).
An 11-year-old intact male Green iguana (Iguana iguana) was referred for treatment of a probable iridophoroma based on previous cytopathology. A periocular mass was present near the right medial canthus. Computed tomography did not show any sign of metastasis. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included lymphopenia and hyperproteinemia. Cytologic and histologic evaluations of the mass were consistent with iridophoroma. Complete surgical excision of the mass was not possible without removal of the orbit due to local tissue involvement. Recovery and suture removal were unremarkable. Adjunctive radiation therapy was recommended, but not performed. A year later, the surgical site had healed well. To our knowledge, this is the first reported chromatophoroma cytopathology in a Green iguana. Chromatophoromas should be included in the differential diagnoses of pigmented skin tumors in reptiles. Early surgical excision is useful to limit local tissue destruction and metastatic potential.
Single-cell gene expression of the bovine blastocyst.
The first two differentiation events in the blastocyst result in three cell types – epiblast, trophectoderm (TE), and hypoblast. The purpose here was to identify molecular markers for each cell type in the bovine and evaluate differences in gene expression among individual cells of each lineage. The cDNA from 67 individual cells from dissociated blastocysts was used to determine transcript abundance for 96 genes implicated as cell lineage markers in other species or potentially involved in developmental processes. Clustering analysis indicated that the cells belonged to two major populations (clades A and B) with two subpopulations of clade A and four of clade B. Use of lineage-specific markers from other species indicated that the two subpopulations of clade A represented epiblast and hypoblast, respectively while the four subpopulations of clade B were TE. Among the genes upregulated in epiblast were AJAP1, DNMT3A, FGF4, H2AFZ, KDM2B, NANOG, POU5F1, SAV1 and SLIT2. Genes overexpressed in hypoblast included ALPL, FGFR2, FN1, GATA6, GJA1, HDAC1, MBNL3, PDGFRA and SOX17 while genes overexpressed in all four TE populations were ACTA2, CDX2, CYP11A1, GATA2, GATA3, IFNT, KRT8, RAC1 and SFN. The subpopulations of TE varied amongst each other in multiple genes including the prototypical TE markers IFNT and EOMES. New candidate genes for markers for each cell type in the bovine blastocyst were identified. Results also indicate heterogeneity in gene expression among TE cells. Further studies are needed to confirm whether subpopulations of TE cells represent different stages in development of a committed TE phenotype.
Reliable Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus Sequence Variation by High-Throughput Resequencing.
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has resulted in data for a number of herpes simplex virus (HSV) laboratory strains and clinical isolates. The knowledge of these sequences has been critical for investigating viral pathogenicity. However, the assembly of complete herpesviral genomes, including HSV, is complicated due to the existence of large repeat regions and arrays of smaller reiterated sequences that are commonly found in these genomes. In addition, the inherent genetic variation in populations of isolates for viruses and other microorganisms presents an additional challenge to many existing HTS sequence assembly pipelines. Here, we evaluate two approaches for the identification of genetic variants in HSV1 strains using Illumina short read sequencing data. The first, a reference-based approach, identifies variants from reads aligned to a reference sequence and the second, a de novo assembly approach, identifies variants from reads aligned to de novo assembled consensus sequences. Of critical importance for both approaches is the reduction in the number of low complexity regions through the construction of a non-redundant reference genome. We compared variants identified in the two methods. Our results indicate that approximately 85% of variants are identified regardless of the approach. The reference-based approach to variant discovery captures an additional 15% representing variants divergent from the HSV1 reference possibly due to viral passage. Reference-based approaches are significantly less labor-intensive and identify variants across the genome where de novo assembly-based approaches are limited to regions where contigs have been successfully assembled. In addition, regions of poor quality assembly can lead to false variant identification in de novo consensus sequences. For viruses with a well-assembled reference genome, a reference-based approach is recommended.
The U.S. Culture Collection Network Responding to the Requirements of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing.
The U.S. Culture Collection Network held a meeting to share information about how culture collections are responding to the requirements of the recently enacted Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The meeting included representatives of many culture collections and other biological collections, the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Secretariat of the CBD, interested scientific societies, and collection groups, including Scientific Collections International and the Global Genome Biodiversity Network. The participants learned about the policies of the United States and other countries regarding access to genetic resources, the definition of genetic resources, and the status of historical materials and genetic sequence information. Key topics included what constitutes access and how the CBD Access and Benefit-Sharing Clearing-House can help guide researchers through the process of obtaining Prior Informed Consent on Mutually Agreed Terms. U.S. scientists and their international collaborators are required to follow the regulations of other countries when working with microbes originally isolated outside the United States, and the local regulations required by the Nagoya Protocol vary by the country of origin of the genetic resource. Managers of diverse living collections in the United States described their holdings and their efforts to provide access to genetic resources. This meeting laid the foundation for cooperation in establishing a set of standard operating procedures for U.S. and international culture collections in response to the Nagoya Protocol.
Dicyanomethylene Substituted Benzothiazole Squaraines: The Efficiency of Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro and In Vivo.
The lack of ideal photosensitizers limits the clinicalapplication of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here we report the PDT efficiency of dicyanomethylene substituted benzothiazole squaraine derivatives. This class of squaraine derivatives possess strong absorption and long excitation and emission wavelengths (ex/em, 685/720nm). They show negligible dark toxicity, but can generate singlet oxygen under irradiation resulting in the apoptosis and necrosis of cells (phototoxicity). Changing the side chains of these compounds greatly influences their albumin-binding rate, cellular uptake and their phototoxicity. One of the squaraine derivatives with two methyl butyrate side chains shows high PDT efficiency in a mouse subcutaneous xenograft model under the irradiation of a 690nm laser. These results show the great potential of dicyanomethylene substituted benzothiazole squaraines to be the leading compound of near-infrared photosensitizers in PDT.
Overexpression of DEMETER, a DNA demethylase, promotes early apical bud maturation in poplar.
The transition from active growth to dormancy is critical for the survival of perennial plants. We identified a DEMETER-like (CsDML) cDNA from a winter-enriched cDNA subtractive library in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), an economically and ecologically important species. Next, we characterized this DNA demethylase and its putative orthologue in the more experimentally tractable hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x alba), under the signals that trigger bud dormancy in trees. We performed phylogenetic and protein sequence analysis, gene expression profiling and 5mC immunodetection studies to evaluate the role of CsDML and its homologue in poplar, PtaDML6. Transgenic hybrid poplars overexpressing CsDML were produced and analyzed. Short days (SD) and cold temperatures induced CsDML and PtaDML6. Overexpression of CsDML accelerated SD-induced bud formation, specifically from stage 1 to 0. Bud acquired a red-brown coloration earlier than wild type (WT) plants, alongside with the up regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis enzymes and accumulation of flavonoids in the SAM and bud scales. Our data shows that the CsDML gene induces bud formation needed for the survival of the apical meristem under the harsh conditions of winter.
Intercellular communication via the comX-Inducing Peptide (XIP) of Streptococcus mutans.
Gram-positive bacteria utilize exported peptides to coordinate genetic and physiological processes required for biofilm formation, stress responses and ecological competitiveness. One example is activation of natural genetic competence by ComR and the comX–inducing peptide (XIP) in Streptococcus mutans Although the competence pathway can be activated by addition of synthetic XIP in defined medium, the hypothesis that XIP is able to function as an intercellular signal molecule has not been rigorously tested. Co-culture model systems were developed that included a “sender” strain that overexpressed the XIP precursor (ComS) and a “responder” strain harboring a GFP reporter fusion to a ComR-activated gene (comX) promoter. The ability of the sender strain to provide a signal to activate GFP expression was monitored at the individual cell and population levels using i) planktonic culture systems, ii) cells suspended in an agarose matrix or iii) cells growing in biofilms. XIP was shown to be freely diffusible and XIP signaling between the S. mutans sender and responder strains did not require cell-to-cell contact. The presence of a sucrose-derived exopolysaccharide matrix diminished the efficiency of XIP signaling in biofilms, possibly by affecting spatial distribution of XIP senders and potential responders. Intercellular signaling was greatly impaired in a strain lacking the primary autolysin, AtlA, and was substantially greater when the sender strain underwent lysis. Collectively, these data provide evidence that S. mutans XIP can indeed function as a peptide signal between cells and highlight the importance of studying signaling with endogenously-produced peptide(s) in populations in various environments and physiologic states.IMPORTANCE The comX-inducing peptide (XIP) of Streptococcus mutans is a key regulatory element in the activation of genetic competence, which allows cells to take up extracellular DNA. XIP has been found in cell culture fluids and addition of synthetic XIP to physiologically receptive cells can robustly induce competence gene expression. However, there is a lack of consensus as to whether XIP can function as an intercellular communication signal. Here, we show that XIP indeed signals between cells in S. mutans, but that cell lysis may be a critical factor, as opposed to a dedicated secretion/processing system, in allowing for release of XIP into the environment. The results have important implications in the context of the ecology, virulence and evolution of a ubiquitous human pathogen and related organisms.
Identification of Novel Growth Regulators in Plant Populations Expressing Random Peptides.
The use of chemical genomics approaches allows the identification of small molecules that integrate into biological systems, thereby changing discrete processes that influence growth, development or metabolism. Libraries of chemicals are applied to living systems, and changes in phenotype are observed, potentially leading to the identification of new growth regulators. This work describes an approach that is the nexus of chemical-genomics and synthetic biology. Here each plant in an extensive population synthesizes a unique small peptide arising from a transgene composed of a randomized nucleic acid sequence core, flanked by translational start, stop, and cysteine-encoding (for disulfide cyclization) sequences. Ten and sixteen amino acid sequences, bearing a core of six and twelve random amino acids, have been synthesized in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Populations were screened for phenotypes from seedling stage through senescence. Dozens of phenotypes were observed in over 2000 plants analyzed. Ten conspicuous phenotypes were verified through separate transformation and analysis of multiple independent lines. The results indicate that these populations contain sequences that often influence discrete aspects of plant biology. Novel peptides that affect photosynthesis, flowering, and red light response are described. The challenge now is to identify the mechanistic integrations of these peptides into biochemical processes. These populations serve as a new tool to identify small molecules that modulate discrete plant functions that could be later produced in transgenic plants or potentially applied exogenously to impart their effects. These findings could usher in a new generation of agricultural growth regulators, herbicides, or defense compounds.
Elimination of Toxic Microsatellite Repeat Expansion RNA by RNA-Targeting Cas9.
Microsatellite repeat expansions in DNA produce pathogenic RNA species that cause dominantly inherited diseases such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 2 (DM1/2), Huntington’s disease, and C9orf72-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9-ALS). Means to target these repetitive RNAs are required for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Here, we describe the development of a programmable CRISPR system capable of specifically visualizing and eliminating these toxic RNAs. We observe specific targeting and efficient elimination of microsatellite repeat expansion RNAs both when exogenously expressed and in patient cells. Importantly, RNA-targeting Cas9 (RCas9) reverses hallmark features of disease including elimination of RNA foci among all conditions studied (DM1, DM2, C9-ALS, polyglutamine diseases), reduction of polyglutamine protein products, relocalization of repeat-bound proteins to resemble healthy controls, and efficient reversal of DM1-associated splicing abnormalities in patient myotubes. Finally, we report a truncated RCas9 system compatible with adeno-associated viral packaging. This effort highlights the potential of RCas9 for human therapeutics.
Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels are influenced by sex and strain but don’t predict tissue iron levels in inbred mice.
Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated and the peptide hormone hepcidin is considered to be a principal regulator of iron metabolism. Previous studies in a limited number of mouse strains found equivocal sex and strain dependent differences in mRNA and serum levels of hepcidin. Similarly, conflicting data on the relationship between hepcidin (Hamp1) mRNA levels and iron status as assessed by transferrin saturation and tissue iron concentrations were reported. Our aim was to clarify the relationships between strain, sex and hepcidin expression by examining multiple tissues and the effects of different dietary conditions in multiple inbred strains. Two studies were done: first, Hamp1 mRNA, liver iron and plasma diferric transferrin levels were measured in fourteen inbred strains on a control iron diet; and second, Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels in both sexes, as well as iron levels in the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas and spleen in males, were measured in nine inbred/recombinant inbred strains raised on an iron sufficient or high iron diet. Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily strain effect). Hepatic hepcidin mRNA level is a highly significant predictor of plasma hepcidin levels. However, liver iron or diferric transferrin levels are not a predictor of Hamp1 mRNA levels in iron sufficient or high iron diet, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least in males.
Surviving Stress: Modulation of ATF4-Mediated Stress Responses in Normal and Malignant Cells.
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress-induced transcription factor that is frequently upregulated in cancer cells. ATF4 controls the expression of a wide range of adaptive genes that allow cells to endure periods of stress, such as hypoxia or amino acid limitation. However, under persistent stress conditions, ATF4 promotes the induction of apoptosis. Recent advances point to a role for post-translational modifications (PTMs) and epigenetic mechanisms in balancing these pro- and anti-survival effects of ATF4. We review here how PTMs and epigenetic modifiers associated with ATF4 may be exploited by cancer cells to cope with cellular stress conditions that are intrinsically associated with tumor growth. Identification of mechanisms that modulate ATF4-mediated transcription and its effects on cellular metabolism may uncover new targets for cancer treatment.
New Pharmacogenomics Research Network: An Open Community Catalyzing Research and Translation in Precision Medicine.
The goal of pharmacogenomics research is to discover genetic polymorphisms that underlie variation in drug response. Increasingly, pharmacogenomics research involves large numbers of patients and the application of new technologies and methodologies to enable discovery. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) has become a community-driven network of investigators spanning scientific and clinical disciplines. Here, we highlight the activities and types of resources that enable PGRN members to enhance and drive basic and translational research in pharmacogenomics.
Novel host plant leads to the loss of sexual dimorphism in a sexually selected male weapon.
In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible for much of the intraspecific variation in sexually selected ornaments and weapons in wild populations. Here we examined the consequences of developing on a novel plant for the expression of size and shape in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata(Hemiptera: Coreidae). The males of this species possess enlarged, sexually dimorphic femurs on their hind legs. These legs are used as weapons in male-male contests. Females are typically larger in overall body size. Our study revealed that developing upon a novel host can lead to pronounced phenotypically plastic change in sexually dimorphic traits. Male hind femurs were greatly impacted by the novel diet to the extent that the sexual dimorphism in hind femurs was lost. Further, dimorphism in body size increased, as males became tiny adults while females better maintained their body size. These patterns underscore the complex effects that novel species interactions may have on sexual phenotypes.
Mining sequence variations in representative polyploid sugarcane germplasm accessions.
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the most important economic crops because of its high sugar production and biofuel potential. Due to the high polyploid level and complex genome of sugarcane, it has been a huge challenge to investigate genomic sequence variations, which are critical for identifying alleles contributing to important agronomic traits. In order to mine the genetic variations in sugarcane, genotyping by sequencing (GBS), was used to genotype 14 representative Saccharum complex accessions. GBS is a method to generate a large number of markers, enabled by next generation sequencing (NGS) and the genome complexity reduction using restriction enzymes.
To use GBS for high throughput genotyping highly polyploid sugarcane, the GBS analysis pipelines in 14 Saccharum complex accessions were established by evaluating different alignment methods, sequence variants callers, and sequence depth for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) filtering. By using the established pipeline, a total of 76,251 non-redundant SNPs, 5642 InDels, 6380 presence/absence variants (PAVs), and 826 copy number variations (CNVs) were detected among the 14 accessions. In addition, non-reference based universal network enabled analysis kit and Stacks de novo called 34,353 and 109,043 SNPs, respectively. In the 14 accessions, the percentages of single dose SNPs ranged from 38.3% to 62.3% with an average of 49.6%, much more than the portions of multiple dosage SNPs. Concordantly called SNPs were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship among the 14 accessions. The results showed that the divergence time between the Erianthus genus and the Saccharum genus was more than 10 million years ago (MYA). The Saccharum species separated from their common ancestors ranging from 0.19 to 1.65 MYA.
The GBS pipelines including the reference sequences, alignment methods, sequence variant callers, and sequence depth were recommended and discussed for the Saccharum complex and other related species. A large number of sequence variations were discovered in the Saccharum complex, including SNPs, InDels, PAVs, and CNVs. Genome-wide SNPs were further used to illustrate sequence features of polyploid species and demonstrated the divergence of different species in the Saccharum complex. The results of this study showed that GBS was an effective NGS-based method to discover genomic sequence variations in highly polyploid and heterozygous species.
Spheroid growth in ovarian cancer alters transcriptome responses for stress pathways and epigenetic responses.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, with over 200,000 women diagnosed each year and over half of those cases leading to death. These poor statistics are related to a lack of early symptoms and inadequate screening techniques. This results in the cancer going undetected until later stages when the tumor has metastasized through a process that requires the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In lieu of traditional monolayer cell culture, EMT and cancer progression in general is best characterized through the use of 3D spheroid models. In this study, we examine gene expression changes through microarray analysis in spheroid versus monolayer ovarian cancer cells treated with TGFβ to induce EMT. Transcripts that included Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 80 (CCDC80), Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 15 (SLC6A15), Semaphorin 3E (SEMA3E) and PIF1 5′-To-3′ DNA Helicase (PIF1) were downregulated more than 10-fold in the 3D cells while Inhibitor Of DNA Binding 2, HLH Protein (ID2), Regulator Of Cell Cycle (RGCC), Protease, Serine 35 (PRSS35), and Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C1 (AKR1C1) were increased more than 50-fold. Interestingly, EMT factors, stress responses and epigenetic processes were significantly affected by 3D growth. The heat shock response and the oxidative stress response were also identified as transcriptome responses that showed significant changes upon 3D growth. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that DNA integrity (e.g. DNA damage, genetic instability, nucleotide excision repair, and the DNA damage checkpoint pathway) were altered in the 3D spheroid model. In addition, two epigenetic processes, DNA methylation and histone acetylation, were increased with 3D growth. These findings support the hypothesis that three dimensional ovarian cell culturing is physiologically different from its monolayer counterpart.
Bacterial Nucleotidyl Cyclase Inhibits the Host Innate Immune Response by Suppressing TAK1 Activation.
Exoenzyme Y (ExoY) is a type III secretion system effector found in 90% of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Although it is known that ExoY is a soluble nucleotidyl cyclase that increases the cytoplasmic levels of nucleoside 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphates (cNMPs) to mediate endothelial Tau phosphorylation and permeability, its functional role in the innate immune response is still poorly understood. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is critical for mediating Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and subsequent activation of NF-κB and AP-1, which are transcriptional activators of innate immunity. Here, we report that ExoY inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production through suppressing the activation of TAK1 as well as downstream NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Mice infected with ExoY-deficient P. aeruginosa had higher levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), more neutrophil recruitment, and a lower bacterial load in lung tissue than mice infected with wild-type P. aeruginosa Taken together, our findings identify a previously unknown mechanism by which P. aeruginosa ExoY inhibits the host innate immune response.
CD33 Splicing Polymorphism Determines Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin Response in De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Report From Randomized Phase III Children’s Oncology Group Trial AAML0531.
Purpose Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), a CD33-targeted immunoconjugate, is a re-emerging therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CD33 single nucleotide polymorphism rs12459419 C>T in the splice enhancer region regulates the expression of an alternatively spliced CD33 isoform lacking exon2 (D2-CD33), thus eliminating the CD33 IgV domain, which is the antibody-binding site for GO, as well as diagnostic immunophenotypic panels. We aimed to determine the impact of the genotype of this splicing polymorphism in patients with AML treated with GO-containing chemotherapy. Patients and Methods CD33 splicing single nucleotide polymorphism was evaluated in newly diagnosed patients with AML randomly assigned to receive standard five-course chemotherapy alone (No-GO arm, n = 408) or chemotherapy with the addition of two doses of GO once during induction and once during intensification (GO arm, n = 408) as per the Children’s Oncology Group AAML0531 trial. Results The rs12459419 genotype was CC in 415 patients (51%), CT in 316 patients (39%), and TT in 85 patients (10%), with a minor allele frequency of 30%. The T allele was significantly associated with higher levels of D2-CD33 transcript ( P < 1.0E-6) and with lower diagnostic leukemic cell surface CD33 intensity ( P < 1.0E-6). Patients with the CC genotype had significantly lower relapse risk in the GO arm than in the No-GO arm (26% v 49%; P < .001). However, in patients with the CT or TT genotype, exposure to GO did not influence relapse risk (39% v 40%; P = .85). Disease-free survival was higher in patients with the CC genotype in the GO arm than in the No-GO arm (65% v 46%, respectively; P = .004), but this benefit of GO addition was not seen in patients with the CT or TT genotype. Conclusion Our results suggest that patients with the CC genotype for rs12459419 have a substantial response to GO, making this a potential biomarker for the selection of patients with a likelihood of significant response to GO.
A Novel Phylogroup of Pseudomonas cichorii Identified Following an Unusual Disease Outbreak on Tomato.
Recently, in Central Florida tomato production fields, tomato foliage and fruit were observed with symptoms similar to bacterial speck. Fluorescent pseudomonads were consistently isolated and the strains were characterized by standard LOPAT tests, pathogenicity tests, and genetic characterization using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of conserved housekeeping genes. LOPAT test results indicated that the strains were likely Pseudomonas cichorii. These strains were pathogenic on tomato and were also pathogenic on lettuce, the host for the type strain of P. cichorii. Likewise, strains of P. cichorii isolated in Florida since the early 1980s from hosts other than tomato, along with the type strain, were also pathogenic on tomato. Genetic characterization using 16S rRNA and MLSA confirmed that the strains were most closely related to P. cichorii but varied significantly from the type strain. The Florida P. cichorii strains formed a separate phylogenetic group along with P. cichorii strains isolated from tomato in Tanzania. These strains were different from the previously described morphotypes and genomovars of P. cichorii. Our results indicate the presence of a genetically distinct group of multihost pathogenic P. cichorii strains that have been present in Florida since at least the early 1980s.
NOTE: These abstracts were retrieved from the U.S. National Library of Medicine website managed in collaboration with the U.S. National Library of Medicine