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UFGI publication round-up week 03/13/2017

Impact of the CYP2C19 genotype on voriconazole exposure in adults with invasive fungal infections.

Author information: Hamadeh IS1, Klinker KP, Borgert SJ, Richards AI, Li W, Mangal N, Hiemenz JW, Schmidt S, Langaee TY, Peloquin CA, Johnson JA, Cavallari LH.

1Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research bCenter for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida cUniversity of Florida Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville dDepartment of Pharmaceutics eCenter for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando fDepartment of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology gDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
Journal: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: Voriconazole, a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), is metabolized by CYP2C19. A significant proportion of patients fail to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations with standard weight-based voriconazole dosing, placing them at increased risk for treatment failure, which can be life threatening. We sought to test the association between the CYP2C19 genotype and subtherapeutic voriconazole concentrations in adults with IFIs.

Adults receiving weight-based voriconazole dosing for the treatment of IFIs were genotyped for the CYP2C19*2, *3, and *17 polymorphisms, and CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred. Steady-state voriconazole trough plasma concentrations and the prevalence of subtherapeutic troughs (<2 mg/l) were compared between patients with the CYP2C19*17/*17 (ultrarapid metabolizer, UM) or *1/*17 (rapid metabolizer, RM) genotype versus those with other genotypes. Logistic regression, adjusting for clinical factors, was performed to estimate the odds of sub therapeutic concentrations.

Of 70 patients included (mean age 52.5±18 years), 39% were RMs or UMs. Compared with patients with the other phenotypes, RMs/UMs had a lower steady-state trough concentration (4.26±2.2 vs. 2.86±2.3, P=0.0093) and a higher prevalence of subtherapeutic troughs (16 vs. 52%, P=0.0028), with an odds ratio of 5.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.64-19.24, P=0.0044).

Our findings indicate that adults with the CYP2C19 RM or UM phenotype are more likely to have subtherapeutic concentrations with weight-based voriconazole dosing. These results corroborate previous findings in children and support the potential clinical utility of CYP2C19 genotype-guided voriconazole dosing to avoid underexposure in RMs and UMs.

 

 

SVIP regulates Z variant alpha-1 antitrypsin retro-translocation by inhibiting ubiquitin ligase gp78.

Author information: Khodayari N1, Wang RL1, Marek G1, Krotova K1, Kirst M1, Liu C2, Rouhani F1, Brantly M1.

1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States.
2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States.
Journal: PLoS One

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder characterized by early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common disease-causing mutation is a single amino acid substitution (Glu/Lys) at amino acid 342 of the mature protein, resulting in disruption of the 290-342 salt bridge (an electrophoretic abnormality defining the mutation [Z allele, or ZAAT]), protein misfolding, polymerization, and accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes and monocytes. The Z allele causes a toxic gain of function, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase gp78 promotes degradation and increased solubility of endogenous ZAAT. We hypothesized that the accumulation of ZAAT is influenced by modulation of gp78 E3 ligase and SVIP (small VCP-interacting protein) interaction with p97/VCP in ZAAT-expressing hepatocytes. We showed that the SVIP inhibitory effect on ERAD due to overexpression causes the accumulation of ZAAT in a human Z hepatocyte-like cell line (AT01). Overexpression of gp78, as well as SVIP suppression, induces gp78-VCP/p97 interaction in AT01 cells. This interaction leads to retro-translocation of ZAAT and reduction of the SVIP inhibitory role in ERAD. In this context, overexpression of gp78 or SVIP suppression may eliminate the toxic gain of function associated with polymerization of ZAAT, thus providing a potential new therapeutic approach to the treatment of AATD.

 

 

Electroacupuncture Promotes CNS-Dependent Release of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Author information: Salazar TE1,2,3, Richardson MR4, Beli E2, Ripsch MS5, George J3, Kim Y5, Duan Y2, Moldovan L2, Yan Y1, Bhatwadekar A2, Jadhav V2, Smith JA5, McGorray S6, Bertone AL7, Traktuev DO8,9, March KL8,9, Colon-Perez LM10, Avin K11, Sims E12, Mund JA4,12, Case J4,12,13,14, Deng S15, Kim MS2, McDavitt B17, Boulton ME2, Thinschmidt J18, Li Calzi S2, Fitz SD11, Fuchs RK11, Warden SJ11, McKinley T19, Shekhar A20, Febo M10, Johnson PL21, Chang LJ22, Gao Z23, Kolonin MG23, Lai S24, Ma J24, Dong X25, White FA5, Xie H26, Yoder MC4,12, Grant MB2.

1Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
2Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
3College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
4Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
5Department of Anesthesia, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
6Department of Biostatistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
7Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.
8Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
9Indiana Center for Vascular Biology and Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
10Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, McKnight Brain Institute, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
11Department of Physical Therapy, Indiana University School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
12Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
13Scripps Clinic Medical Group, Scripps Center for Organ and Cell Transplantation, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.
14Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
15Mainland Acupuncture, Gainesville, FL, 32653, USA.
16College of Veterinary Medicine, Chon Buk National University, Jeonju, South Korea.
17McDavitt Veterinary Clinic, Zionsville, IN, 46077, USA.
18Department of Pharmacology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
19Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
20Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
21Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
22Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.
23Center for Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases, Harry E. Bovay Institute of Molecular Medicine University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
24Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida School of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
25Department of Neuroscience, Center of Sensory Biology, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.
26College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32608, USA.
Journal: Stem Cells

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: Electro-acupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using front-limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and Du-14 and Du-20 increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation. EA-mediated SNS activation was further supported by browning of white adipose tissue in rats. EA treatment of rats undergoing partial rupture of the Achilles tendon resulted in reduced mechanical hyperalgesia, increased serum IL-10 levels and tendon remodeling, effects blocked in propranolol-treated rodents. To distinguish the afferent role of the peripheral nervous system, phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of transient receptor potential channels (Pirt)-GCaMP3 (genetically encoded calcium sensor) mice were treated with EA directed at hind limb immune points, ST-36 and Liv-3 and resulted in a rapid activation of primary sensory neurons. EA activated sensory ganglia and SNS centers to mediate the release of MSC that can enhance tissue repair, increase anti-inflammatory cytokine production and provide pronounced analgesic relief. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

 

 

Role of systemic inflammation scores for prediction of clinical outcomes in patients treated with atazanavir not boosted by ritonavir in the Italian MASTER cohort.

Author information: Postorino MC1, Prosperi M2, Focà E3, Quiros-Roldan E3, Filippo E4, Maggiolo F4, Borghetti A5, Ladisa N6, Di Pietro M7, Gori A8, Sighinolfi L9, Pan A10, Mazzini N11, Torti C12.

1 Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy.
2Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions & College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
3University Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and Spedali Civili General Hospital, Brescia, Italy.
4Clinic of Infectious Diseases of “Papa Giovanni XXIII” Hospital of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.
5Institute of Clinical Infectious Diseases of Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
6Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
7Clinic of Infectious Diseases of “Azienda Ospedaliera S.M. Annunziata”, Florence, Italy.
8Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Gerardo de’ Tintori Hospital, Monza, Italy.
9Clinic of Infectious Diseases of “Azienda Ospedaliera S. Anna” of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
10Clinic of Infectious Diseases of “Istituti Ospitalieri” of Cremona, Cremona, Italy.
11MISI Foundation, Brescia, Italy.
12Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy. torti@unicz.it.
Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: Atazanavir (ATV) not boosted by ritonavir (uATV) has been frequently used in the past for switching combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the clinical outcomes and predictors of such strategy are unknown.

An observational study was carried out on the Italian MASTER, selecting HIV infected patients on cART switching to an uATV-containing regimen. Baseline was set as the last visit before uATV initiation. In the primary analysis, a composite clinical end-point was defined as the first occurring of any condition among: liver, cardiovascular, kidney, diabetes, non AIDS related cancer or death events. Incidence of AIDS events and incidence of composite clinical end-point were estimated. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analysis were used to assess predictors of the composite clinical end-point.

436 patients were observed. The majority of patients were males (61.5%) and Italians (85.3%), mean age was 42.7 years (IQR: 37.7-42), the most frequent route of transmission was heterosexual intercourse (47%), followed by injection drug use (25%) and homosexual contact (24%); the rate of HCV-Ab positivity was 16.3%. Patients were observed for a median time of 882 days (IQR: 252-1,769) under uATV. We recorded 93 clinical events (3 cardiovascular events, 20 kidney diseases, 33 liver diseases, 9 non AIDS related cancers, 21 diabetes, 7 AIDS events), and 19 deaths, accounting for an incidence of 3.7 (composite) events per 100 PYFU. At multivariable analysis, factors associated with the composite clinical end-point were intravenous drug use as risk factor for HIV acquisition vs. heterosexual intercourses [HR: 2.608, 95% CI 1.31-5.19, p = 0.0063], HIV RNA per Log10 copies/ml higher [HR: 1.612, 95% CI 1.278-2.034, p < 0.0001], number of switches in the nucleoside/nucleotide (NRTI) backbone of cART (performed to compose the uATV regimen under study or occurred in the past) per each more [HR: 1.085, 95% CI 1.025-1.15, p = 0.0051], Fib-4 score per unit higher [HR: 1.03, 95% CI 1.018-1.043, p < 0.0001] and Neutrophil/lymphocytes ratio (NLR inflammation score) per Log10 higher [HR: 1.319, 95% CI 1.047-1.662, p = 0.0188].

Intravenous drug users with high HIV RNA, high Fib-4 levels and more heavily exposed to antiretroviral drugs appeared to be more at risk of clinical events. Interestingly, high levels of inflammation measured through NLR, were also associated with clinical events. So, these patients should be monitored more strictly.

 

 

Testing the association of phenotypes with polyploidy: An example using herbaceous and woody eudicots.

Author information: Zenil-Ferguson R1, Ponciano JM2, Burleigh JG2.

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.
2Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Journal: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: Although numerous studies have surveyed the frequency with which different plant characters are associated with polyploidy, few statistical tools are available to identify the factors that potentially facilitate polyploidy. We describe a new probabilistic model, BiChroM, designed to associate the frequency of polyploidy and chromosomal change with a binary phenotypic character in a phylogeny. BiChroM provides a robust statistical framework for testing differences in rates of polyploidy associated with phenotypic characters along a phylogeny while simultaneously allowing for evolutionary transitions between character states. We used BiChroM to test whether polyploidy is more frequent in woody or herbaceous plants, based on tree with 4,711 eudicot species. Although polyploidy occurs in woody species, rates of chromosome doubling were over six times higher in herbaceous species. Rates of single chromosome increases or decreases were also far higher in herbaceous than woody species. Simulation experiments indicate that BiChroM performs well with little to no bias and relatively little variance at a wide range of tree depths when trees have at least 500 taxa. Thus, BiChroM provides a first step towards a rigorous statistical framework for assessing the traits that facilitate polyploidy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

 

 

Is homoploid hybrid speciation that rare? An empiricist’s view.

Author information: Nieto Feliner G1, Álvarez I2, Fuertes-Aguilar J1, Heuertz M2, Marques I3,4, Moharrek F5, Piñeiro R6, Riina R1, Rosselló JA7, Soltis PS8, Villa-Machío I1.

1Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
2BioGeCo INRA, Université de Bordeaux, Cestas, France.
3Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, High Polytechnic School of Huesca, University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain.
4UBC Botanical Garden & Centre for Plant Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
5Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
6Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, UK.
7Jardí Botànic, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
8Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Journal: Heredity

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: N/A

 

 

The IGNITE Pharmacogenetics Working Group: An Opportunity for Building Evidence with Pharmacogenetic Implementation in a Real-World Setting.

Author information: Cavallari LH1, Beitelshees AL2, Blake KV3, Dressler LG4, Duarte JD1, Elsey A1, Eichmeyer JN2, Empey PE6, Franciosi JP7, Hicks JK8, Holmes AM9, Jeng L10, Lee CR11, Lima JJ3, Modlin J5, Obeng AO13, Petry N14, Pratt VM15, Skaar TC16, Tuteja S17, Voora D18, Wagner M5, Weitzel KW1, Wilke RA19, Peterson JF20, Johnson JA1.

1Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
3Biomedical Research Department, Nemours Children’s Specialty Care, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
4Personalized Medicine and Pharmacogenetics Program, Mission Health, Asheville, North Carolina, USA.
5Department of Oncology, St. Luke’s Mountain States Tumor Institute, Boise, Idaho, USA.
6Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Center for Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
7Biomedical Research Department, Nemours Children’s Specialty Care, Orlando, Florida, USA.
8Division of Population Science, DeBartolo Family Personalized Medicine Institute, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, USA.
9Department of Health Policy and Management, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University – Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
10Departments of Medicine, Pathology, and Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
11Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
12Department of Neurology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
13Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
14Department of Pharmacy Practice, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA.
15Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
16Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
17Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
18Center for Applied Genomics & Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
19Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA.
20Departments of Biomedical Informatics and Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Journal: Clinical and Translational Science

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: N/A

 

 

Identification of a Novel Epoxyqueuosine Reductase Family by Comparative Genomics.

Author information: Zallot R1, Ross R2, Chen WH3, Bruner SD3, Limbach PA2, de Crécy-Lagard V1.

1Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida , Gainesville, Florida 32611, United States.
2Rieveschl Laboratories for Mass Spectrometry, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, United States.
3Department of Chemistry, University of Florida , Gainesville, Florida 32611, United States.
Journal: ACS Chemical Biology

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract:  The reduction of epoxyqueuosine (oQ) is the last step in the synthesis of the tRNA modification queuosine (Q). While the epoxyqueuosine reductase (EC 1.17.99.6) enzymatic activity was first described 30 years ago, the encoding gene queG was only identified in Escherichia coli in 2011. Interestingly, queG is absent from a large number of sequenced genomes that harbor Q synthesis or salvage genes, suggesting the existence of an alternative epoxyqueuosine reductase in these organisms. By analyzing phylogenetic distributions, physical gene clustering, and fusions, members of the Domain of Unknown Function 208 (DUF208) family were predicted to encode for an alternative epoxyqueuosine reductase. This prediction was validated with genetic methods. The Q modification is present in Lactobacillus salivarius, an organism missing queG but harboring the duf208 gene. Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is one of the few organisms that harbor both QueG and DUF208, and deletion of both corresponding genes was required to observe the absence of Q and the accumulation of oQ in tRNA. Finally, the conversion oQ to Q was restored in an E. coli queG mutant by complementation with plasmids harboring duf208 genes from different bacteria. Members of the DUF208 family are not homologous to QueG enzymes, and thus, duf208 is a non-orthologous replacement of queG. We propose to name DUF208 encoding genes as queH. While QueH contains conserved cysteines that could be involved in the coordination of a Fe/S center in a similar fashion to what has been identified in QueG, no cobalamin was identified associated with recombinant QueH protein.

 

 

ThiN as a Versatile Domain of Transcriptional Repressors and Catalytic Enzymes of Thiamine Biosynthesis.

Author information: Hwang S1, Cordova B1, Abdo M1, Pfeiffer F2, Maupin-Furlow JA3,4.

1Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
2Computational Biology Group, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.
3Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA jmaupin@ufl.edu.
4Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: Thiamine biosynthesis is commonly regulated by a riboswitch mechanism; however, the enzymatic steps and regulation of this pathway in archaea are poorly understood. Haloferax volcanii, one of the representative archaea, uses a eukaryote-like Thi4 (thiamine thiazole synthase) for the production of the thiazole ring and condenses this ring with a pyrimidine moiety synthesized by an apparent bacterium-like ThiC (2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine [HMP] phosphate synthase) branch. Here we found that archaeal Thi4 and ThiC were encoded by leaderless transcripts, ruling out a riboswitch mechanism. Instead, a novel ThiR transcription factor that harbored an N-terminal helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding domain and C-terminal ThiN (TMP synthase) domain was identified. In the presence of thiamine, ThiR was found to repress the expression of thi4 and thiC by a DNA operator sequence that was conserved across archaeal phyla. Despite having a ThiN domain, ThiR was found to be catalytically inactive in compensating for the loss of ThiE (TMP synthase) function. In contrast, bifunctional ThiDN, in which the ThiN domain is fused to an N-terminal ThiD (HMP/HMP phosphate [HMP-P] kinase) domain, was found to be interchangeable for ThiE function and, thus, active in thiamine biosynthesis. A conserved Met residue of an extended α-helix near the active-site His of the ThiN domain was found to be important for ThiDN catalytic activity, whereas the corresponding Met residue was absent and the α-helix was shorter in ThiR homologs. Thus, we provide new insight into residues that distinguish catalytic from noncatalytic ThiN domains and reveal that thiamine biosynthesis in archaea is regulated by a transcriptional repressor, ThiR, and not by a riboswitch.IMPORTANCE Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a cofactor needed for the enzymatic activity of many cellular processes, including central metabolism. In archaea, thiamine biosynthesis is an apparent chimera of eukaryote- and bacterium-type pathways that is not well defined at the level of enzymatic steps or regulatory mechanisms. Here we find that ThiN is a versatile domain of transcriptional repressors and catalytic enzymes of thiamine biosynthesis in archaea. Our study provides new insight into residues that distinguish catalytic from noncatalytic ThiN domains and reveals that archaeal thiamine biosynthesis is regulated by a ThiN domain transcriptional repressor, ThiR, and not by a riboswitch.

 

 

Nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets for biosensing applications.

Author information: Mo L1, Li J2, Liu Q3, Tan W4.

 

1Molecular Sciences and Biomedicine Laboratory, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and College of Biology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Molecular Engineering and Theranostics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.
2Molecular Sciences and Biomedicine Laboratory, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and College of Biology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Molecular Engineering and Theranostics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China; The Key Lab of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety of the MOE and Fujian Province, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002, China.
3Molecular Sciences and Biomedicine Laboratory, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and College of Biology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Molecular Engineering and Theranostics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China. Electronic address: qlliu@iccas.ac.cn.
4Molecular Sciences and Biomedicine Laboratory, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and College of Biology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Molecular Engineering and Theranostics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China; Department of Chemistry and Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface, UF Health Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7200, USA. Electronic address: tan@chem.ufl.edu.
Journal: Biosensors & Bioelectronics

Date of e-pub: March 2017

Abstract: In clinical diagnostics, as well as food and environmental safety practices, biosensors are powerful tools for monitoring biological or biochemical processes. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal nanomaterials, including transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) and transition metal oxides (TMOs), are receiving growing interest for their use in biosensing applications based on such unique properties as high surface area and fluorescence quenching abilities. Meanwhile, nucleic acid probes based on Watson-Crick base-pairing rules are also being widely applied in biosensing based on their excellent recognition capability. In particular, the emergence of functional nucleic acids in the 1980s, especially aptamers, has substantially extended the recognition capability of nucleic acids to various targets, ranging from small organic molecules and metal ions to proteins and cells. Based on π-π stacking interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids, biosensing systems can be easily assembled. Therefore, the combination of 2D transition metal nanomaterials and nucleic acids brings intriguing opportunities in bioanalysis and biomedicine. In this review, we summarize recent advances of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets in biosensing applications. The structure and properties of 2D transition metal nanomaterials are first discussed, emphasizing the interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids. Then, the applications of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheet-based biosensors are discussed in the context of different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical and electrochemical approaches. Finally, we provide our perspectives on the current challenges and opportunities in this promising field.

 

NOTE: These abstracts were retrieved from the U.S. National Library of Medicine website managed in collaboration with the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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